Passion of the Christ - DEATH BY CRUCIFIXION

Historians tell us that crucifixion, as a method of execution, may have been invented by the Persians sometime between 300-400 BC. Rome likely learned about its use from the Carthaginians whose executioners employed it for many, many years.

Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of two individuals who likely died from crucifixion. The remains of one individual—discovered in 1968 by Greek archaeologist Vassilios Tzaferis—still contained a 7-inch (17-18 centimeters) nail which had been driven through the man’s heel. See Tzaferis’ story about his discovery at the Center for Online Judaic Studies. A replica of the discovered nail-in-bone is displayed at the Israel Museum (as depicted in the above image by Steve at “Braman’s Wanderings”).


What actually happened to a person who was nailed to a cross and died by crucifixion? Modern medical doctors, examining the evidence, detail a gruesome, horrifying death. The late Dr. C. Truman Davis describes how the body of Jesus would have responded after the nails were driven through his wrists and feet:

As Jesus slowly sagged down with more weight on the nails in the wrists, excruciating, fiery pain shot along the fingers and up the arms to explode in the brain. The nails in the wrists were putting pressure on the median nerve, large nerve trunks which traverse the mid-wrist and hand. As He pushed himself upward to avoid this stretching torment, He placed His full weight on the nail through His feet. Again there was searing agony as the nail tore through the nerves between the metatarsal bones of his feet.

Was he able to breathe?

At this point, another phenomenon occurred. As the arms fatigued, great waves of cramps swept over the muscles, knotting them in deep relentless, throbbing pain. With these cramps came the inability to push Himself upward. Hanging by the arm, the pectoral muscles, the large muscles of the chest, were paralyzed and the intercostal muscles, the small muscles between the ribs, were unable to act. Air could be drawn into the lungs, but could not be exhaled. Jesus fought to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, the carbon dioxide level increased in the lungs and in the blood stream, and the cramps partially subsided.

Suffocation was the usual cause of death for a crucified victim.

The common method of ending a crucifixion was by crurifracture, the breaking of the bones of the leg. This prevented the victim from pushing himself upward; the tension could not be relieved from the muscles of the chest, and rapid suffocation occurred. The legs of the two thieves were broken, but when the soldiers approached Jesus, they saw that this was unnecessary.

When the soldiers approached Jesus, they saw he was already dead. What was the likely cause of death?

Apparently, to make doubly sure of death, the legionnaire drove his lance between the ribs, upward through the pericardium and into the heart. John 19:34 states, "And immediately there came out blood and water." Thus there was an escape of watery fluid from the sac surrounding the heart and the blood of the interior of the heart. This is rather conclusive post-mortem evidence that Jesus died, not the usual crucifixion death by suffocation, but of heart failure due to shock and constriction of the heart by fluid in the pericardium.

The next day was a special Sabbath. The body of Jesus had to be removed from the cross and buried before the following day. Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for permission to take the body for burial. Nicodemus helped Joseph with that task. They used a tomb near the place where Jesus was crucified.

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Author: Carole D. Bos, J.D. 5190stories and lessons created

Original Release: Feb 01, 2004

Updated Last Revision: Jul 05, 2019

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"DEATH BY CRUCIFIXION" AwesomeStories.com. Feb 01, 2004. Feb 20, 2020.
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