Banastre Tarleton was a young British officer who developed a reputation for cruelty during the American Revolutionary War. The U.S. National Park Service provides a brief biography about his actions in that conflict:
Banastre Tarleton was born to upper middle-class parents in Liverpool, England, on August 21, 1754. At the University College, Oxford, he studied toward a law degree but was better known for his athletic abilities, participating in cricket, boxing, riding, and tennis. He was small physically, yet strong and active.
He was soon to use these athletic skills in the military, when on April 20, 1775, after exhausting his finances through gambling and other "fashionable amusements," he purchased a rank in the First Regiment of Dragoon Guards. His military career offered him adventure and opportunities for advancement, and, more importantly, led him to America and shaped his destiny in history.
In America, he received promotions on the basis of merit. Always wanting to go beyond the routine of the soldier's life, he came to be known for his speed, daring, and surprise. At twenty-three, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the British Legion. 1
His abilities led to initial success in the Revolutionary War, in both the Northern and Southern Campaigns.2 His use of light infantry3 in combination with his cavalry4 made a powerful combat team. He set a strong pace for his men to follow, and, in effect, led by example. Militia were said to panic at the sight of his green-jacketed dragoons5 He was so effective that Cornwallis wrote: "I wish you would get three legions, and divide yourself into three parts: We can do no good without you."
Tarleton's early success included raids on upstate New York, and action in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In the Carolinas he took an active part in the battles of Monck's Corner,6 Charleston,7 the Waxhaws,8 Camden,9 Fishing Creek,10 Blackstocks,11 and Cowpens12.
It was in the Waxhaws that Tarleton came to symbolize British cruelty in the Revolutionary War. There were numerous versions, however, of what actually happened in the Waxhaws. Traditionally, Tarleton was seen as a "butcher" when , it was said, America forces under Buford laid down their arms in an attempt to surrender yet the British continued their assault. From then on, his reputation grew and "Tarleton's quarter"13, in effect, came to mean "no quarter."
"Tarleton's quarter" was to become a rallying cry at the Battle of Cowpens. Tarleton, then only twenty-six, had been charged with covering the Carolina upcountry against Patriot guerillas. Specifically, he was to seek out and destroy a threat to his rear, a wing of the American Southern Army, commanded by General Daniel Morgan. By January 12, 1781, he was closing in on Morgan, pushing his men on, fording the rain-swollen Enoree, Tyger, and Pacolet Rivers. Morgan, on the other hand, suddenly halted a desperate retreat, was joined by more militia, and parlayed the fear and hatred of Tarleton into victory at Cowpens in the South Carolina Upcountry.
At Cowpens, January 17, 1781, Morgan appeared to take into account Tarleton's tendency to rush the attack. His collapsing lines (skirmishers, militia, and Continentals14) brought the tired (having marched since two in the morning) but confident British in prematurely, in effect, exposing them to heavy fire. As the Continentals pinned the British down, militia cavalry would crush them in a flank attack. A mistaken command to retreat drew the British in even more, and, when the retreat was stopped, the Continental line turned and fired with devastating results. In the ensuing panic, the American cavalry, already engaged in battle, flanked the British left, leading to double envelopment and victory and a turning point in the war in the South.
At battle's end, American cavalry leader William Washington, in mad pursuit of the defiant Tarleton along the Green River Road, engaged the British commander in a dramatic hand-to-hand encounter, in which Washington barely escaped with his life. With the approach of American riflemen, Tarleton, with fifty-four of his supporters, abandoned the battle and fled east toward the British camp, never to be caught up with.
Tarleton would draw criticism from older officers who believed he lacked "military maturity." Held by some to be personally responsible for the death of some fine officers and veteran troops, Tarleton subsequently submitted his resignation but it was not accepted. He continued to fight on in later battles even with some amount of success, but the relationship with Cornwallis was strained after the British defeat at Cowpens. Posted across the river from Yorktown,15 he surrendered his forces about the same time as Cornwallis.
In the tradition of the day, American officers hosted the defeated Cornwallis and other British officers at their respective tables. But no American invited Tarleton nor would any eat with him. Tarleton asked if the omission was accidental, and he was told that, indeed it was not, because of his past atrocities.
Tarleton returned to England a hero and was eventually promoted to the rank of General. Back in Liverpool, he was elected to Parliament, knighted, and published his History. His pursuit of pleasure and his fifteen-year liaison with the author-actress, Mary Robinson, found him little favor with his constituents, leading to an off and on political career. Estranged from Mary Robinson and graying at age forty-three he met and married Susan Priscilla Bertie on December 17, 1798. He lived a long life, but would never admit to any fault at Cowpens, saying he was outnumbered and received inadequate assistance from Cornwallis. He wondered. "how some unforeseen event" could "throw terror into the most disciplined soldiers".
Banastre Tarleton's place in history goes beyond this defeat and his image as a "butcher". He is often not given credit for his genius in strategy. It is true he practiced total war -- burning houses, destroying crops, the end justifying the means -- when the European ideal was limited war confined to a field of battle. In effect, he was probably no more brutal then some other British officers and even some American officers. But, at the Waxhaws, his reputation for brutality stuck, as Patriot officers encouraged fear and anxiety of "butcher" Tarleton for propaganda purposes.
Banastre Tarleton, who died childless on January 16, 1833, at the age of seventy-eight, was buried in Leintwardine Churchyard. He was one of the most controversial figures in the American Revolution, possibly remembered in America more than in his native country.
Click on the image for a better view.
Image online, courtesy the U.S. National Archives.
Information, and quoted passage, from the U.S. National Park Service website on the battles of Cowpens and Waxhaws.