Illustration of medieval surgical instruments, from Chirurgia magna (Great Surgery), by Guy de Chauliac.
Guy de Chauliac (1298-1368), as noted (at page 8) in Health, Disease and Society in Europe, 1500-1800 (ed. by Peter Elmer and Ole Peter Grell), was one of the most eminent surgeons of the Middle Ages. His Chirurgia magna, or Great Surgery (1363), was a standard text for surgeons until well into the seventeenth century.
He spent most of his life in Avignon, where he served as surgeon to three popes.
Library of Congress.