In 1862 - when Abraham Lincoln was president and the Resolute was still owned by the Royal Navy - a man named Jose Maria Melgar discovered something unusual in Mexico’s Gulf-coast-state of Veracruz. What he found - the statue of a colossal head - would provide scholars with important clues about early civilization in the Americas.
About sixty years later, someone else found another giant head. What did the statues depict? Who had created them?
Marshall Saville, director of New York’s Museum of the American Indian, weighed the evidence and determined (in 1929) that the findings were created by a previously unknown people. Hermann Beyer had reached the same conclusion two years earlier. They named the civilization Olmec, meaning “those who live in the land of rubber” in Nahuatl (the ancient language of the Aztecs). Both believed this civilization, and its area of influence, predated the Mayans.
Experts now believe the Olmec civilization was the first complex society in Mesoamerica. It may have started about 1500 B.C., flourished between 1200 B.C. and 300 B.C. - then disappeared. No one knows why.
Archaeological digs and discoveries also reveal the Olmecs had a written form of communication. Using a type of hieroglyphics - referred to as Olmec glyphs - they created what are “believed to be the earliest form of writing ever found in the New World.” The problem, however, is that scholars - such as Dr. Mary Pohl from Florida State University - do not yet fully understand the writings. (The audio clips are from NPR.)
So ... given that the Olmec civilization flourished in the warm climate of Gulf-coast Mexico, could a connection exist between the Olmecs and Native Americans who lived in the area we know as South Dakota?