WITH ALL DELIBERATE SPEED (Illustration) American History African American History Civil Rights Government Social Studies Ethics Law and Politics Trials

As he worked his way through an important Supreme Court decision impacting currently segregated schools, Just Felix Frankfurter (1882-1965) annotated the draft of Brown v Board of Education of Topeka. This image depicts Frankfurter’s annotations from the 8th of April, 1955. It is a facsimile of page 2 of the decree. Online via the Library of Congress.


Years had passed since Justice Felix Frankfurter (shown in this National Archives photo with Eleanor Roosevelt and FDR, Jr.) struggled to find the right words in Brown v Board of Education II: Integrate schools "with all deliberate speed."

By 1971 (the turbulent year of anti-war protests, the "Pentagon Papers," more American deaths in Vietnam and the Court's decision in Swann), public schools had not integrated "with all deliberate speed." School districts had tried - by busing black students to white schools and white students to black schools - but their efforts had fallen short of full integration.

In early 1971, it was still an open question whether the United States Supreme Court would support the concept of busing as a segregation cure.

Many parents and students were vehemently opposed to busing as a cure for anything. What were those protests all about? Where were some of the more-violent outbreaks?

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Author: Carole D. Bos, J.D. 5190stories and lessons created

Original Release: Apr 01, 2001

Updated Last Revision: Apr 09, 2018

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"WITH ALL DELIBERATE SPEED" AwesomeStories.com. Apr 01, 2001. Feb 27, 2020.
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