Stories of the Month

June 2018

1
Anne Boleyn - 2nd Wife of Henry VIII 1533
Henry VIII was finally able to marry Anne Boleyn, trying to have sons. She was crowned Queen of England on June 1, 1533, but Henry still had no sons. That led to a bad ending for Anne.
Helen Keller Dies 1968
On the 1st of June, 1968, Helen Keller died at Westport, Connecticut. Even though she was deaf and blind, nearly all her life, she had earned a college degree.
Benedict Arnold 1779
Benedict Arnold was court-martialed June 1, 1779 for malfeasance. Who was this patriot turned traitor?
Mary Dyer Hangs at Boston Common 1660
In Massachusetts Bay Colony, Mary Dyer (a Quaker) did not conform to the Puritan way of life. She had a choice: Live like the authorities told her or risk serious punishment. On the 1st of June, 1660, she was hanged from gallows at Boston Common.
2
P.T. Barnum Circus - A Traveling Attraction Begins 1835
On the 2nd of June, in 1835, a new traveling attraction is launched in the U.S. when P.T. Barnum and his circus begin their first tour. What makes the circus such a popular event? How did the circus fare during the war years and the Great Depression?
Quartering Act Imposed on Colonies 1774
American Colonials were already tired of Parliament’s laws when “Intolerable Acts” were passed in 1774. One of the worst was the “Quartering Act,” allowing the British governor to house “Redcoats” in Colonial-owned property.
3
Catherine of Aragon - 1st Wife of Henry VIII 1509
A Spanish princess, she married Henry VIII on the 3rd of June, 1509. Who was Catherine? Why was she betrothed to marry when she was only three years old?
Ed White - First American to Walk in Space 1965
When his Gemini IV space craft was over a tracking station in Hawaii, Ed White pulled the handle of his hatch and left his orbiting vehicle to become the first American to walk in space. White's spacewalk lasted 20 minutes. Hear him describe it.
4
Churchill: ''We Shall NEVER Surrender!'' 1940
Despite the loss at Dunkirk, Churchill tells Parliament and the British people that their country will ''never surrender'' to Hitler and they will ''defend our island whatever the cost.'' Hear his moving speech of June 4, 1940.
Bobby Kennedy's Last Speech 1968
June 4, 1968, Robert F. Kennedy won the California primary in his quest to become the Democratic presidential nominee. Minutes after he gave that speech, RFK was fatally shot.
Miracle at Dunkirk - Operation Dynamo 1940
Between May 26 and June 4, 1940, about 338,226 soldiers (198,229 British & 139,997 French) were rescued from certain death by a fleet of 860 boats (including small fishing craft).
5
Gliders and the Capture of Pegasus Bridge 1944
June 5, 1944, two British gliders crossed the English Channel, en route to France. Sixty years after D-Day, two of the glider pilots tell us what happened as they helped to launch D-Day.
Uncle Tom's Cabin 1851
June 5, 1851, Harriet Beecher Stowe's book, Uncle Tom's Cabin- based on the life of Rev. Josiah Henso, began a 10-month serialized run in the ''National Era'' abolitionist newspaper.
Funeral Train of Bobby Kennedy 1968
After a funeral in New York City, Bobby Kennedy's remains were placed in a train bound for Arlington Cemetery. Along the way, vast crowds of people paid their respects.
Assassination of Bobby Kennedy 1968
Bob Kennedy was mortally wounded on the 5th of June, 1968. Sirhan Bishara Sirhan was tried, and convicted, of the crime - but - not all historians believed Sirhan actually fired the fatal shots.
Planning for D-Day 1944
Before ''Operation Overlord'' could take place, a huge amount of planning was required. This clip explains how the troops, from various countries, prepared for battle.
6
D-Day and the Normandy Invasion 1944
On the 6th of June, 1944, Allied forces stormed the beaches of Normandy, France. This historical footage, from the U.S. National Archives, includes battle scenes.
Bobby Kennedy - 'Ripple of Hope' Speech 1966
During a trip to South Africa, Bobby Kennedy delivered one of his most famous speeches - ''A Tiny Ripple of Hope'' - at Capetown University. This clip explains its background and impact.
D-Day - The Normandy Invasion 1944
The phase of the moon (full) and the level of the tide (three hours past its ebb) would dictate the invasion's start. The best day in June, 1944, was the 5th. But ... the weather didn't look good.
A Distant Shore - African-Americans and D-Day 1944
About 2,000 African-Americans were among the Allied troops who stormed Normandy's beaches on D-Day. This is a video clip about those troops.
D-Day - From the German Perspective 1944
While newsreels depicting scenes from Normandy & its battle sites played in Allied countries, similar newsreels, with a very different perspective, played in Germany. View one!
7
Carry Nation Vandalizes a Kansas Saloon 1900
Personally experiencing the negative impact of an alcohol-addicted husband, Carrie Nation decides to take radical action. Armed with a brickbat, she destroys the inventory of alcoholic beverages in a Kiowa, Kansas saloon on June 7, 1900.
Pirates of the Caribbean and a Devastating Quake 1692
Port Royal, Jamaica, was an economically important English-speaking town in the Western Hemisphere. On June 7, 1692, two-thirds of the city slid into the sea and 2,000 people died.
8
Vikings Invade Britain 793
On the 8th of June, 793, Vikings began their invasion of Britain. Killing monks and looting the Lindisfarne monastery. Who were the Vikings? How did they build their ships?
Homer Plessy and Segregated Rail Travel 1892
Homer Plessy was traveling on a train when he was arrested on the June 8, 1892. Plessy was 7/8 white and 1/8 black. When his case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, what happened? In short ... years of legal segregation, known as ''separate but equal.'
9
Norway Surrenders during World War II 1940
Hitler plans to turn Norway into a Third-Reich-affiliated nation and sends his troops to conquer the country in April of 1940. By the 9th of June, that year, Norway falls although the Resistance remains active during German occupation.
Secretariat Wins the Triple Crown 1973
Secretariat had already won the Derby and the Preakness when he stepped onto the Belmont track on the 9th of June, 1973. What he accomplished that day stunned the racing world.
10
First Victim of Salem Witch Trials Hanged 1692
On the 10th of June, 1692, Bridget Bishop was the first of the Salem-Witch-Trial defendants to be hanged in Salem Village. She went to Gallows Hill, where she was executed by sheriff George Corwin, still protesting her innocence.
Death of Alexander the Great 323 BC
Despite numerous omens warning him to stay out of Babylon, Alexander the Great returned! He died a short time later - on the 10th of June. What caused his death?
11
The Fall of Troy, c. 1184 BC
Eratosthenes, an ancient Greek mathematician, calculated that Troy fell in 1184 BC. Because Trojan events occurred in prehistory, we cannot be sure of events and dates. We do know that inventions by Eratosthenes are still used today.
Catherine of Aragon Marries Henry VIII 1502
Henry VIII never planned to be King of England, but things changed when his brother Arthur (the Prince of Wales) died in 1502. Arthur’s widow, Catherine of Aragon, married her brother-in-law Henry (who had just become King) on June 11, 1509.
12
Medgar Evers - Assassinated in Jackson, MS 1963
Medgar Evers, who chose to live in the South because ''I love the South,'' died in Jackson, Mississippi after a long day of work. After Edgar got out of his car, at home, an assassin - who wasn't convicted until 1994 - fatally shot him.
Mr. Gorbachev: Tear Down This Wall! 1987
On the 12th of June, 1987, President Ronald Reagan visited Berlin. His words that day became some of the most famous of his presidency.
13
Cinderella Man Defeats Max Baer 1935
June 13, 1935 - Jim Braddock defeated Max Baer. Baer wore the Star of David on his boxing shorts to demonstrate support of German Jews who were being persecuted by the Nazis.
Lewis & Clark - The Great Falls 1805
While scouting ahead of the rest of his expedition, Meriwether Lewis and four members of the Corps of Discovery sighted the Great Falls of the Missouri River on the 13th of June, 1805.
14
Auschwitz - Opening of the Concentration Camp 1940
The Nazis opened a concentration camp outside the Polish town of Oswiecim on June 14, 1940. Why did the Nazis build camps? These videos provide some of the background.
Falkland Islands - End of an Ownership War 1982
Going back to 1493, when Popes claimed the power to decide who ''owned'' lands in the ''New World,'' Argentina has had a claim to the Falkland Islands. But Brits have lived there since 1841. Who owns the Falklands? What started the 1982 war? Who won?
15
King John and the Magna Carta 1215
Under great duress, King John signed the Magna Carta at Runnymede, England on the 15th of June, 1215.
Mt. Pinatubo and Its Massive Eruption 1991
On 15 June 1991, Mt. Pinatubo has a cataclysmic eruption. Asleep for about 600 years, the Philippine volcano comes roaring to life and spews forth volcanic debris including a massive pyroclastic flow.
16
First Woman in Space - Valentina Tereshkova 1963
Soviet Cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova, piloted Vostok 6 into space on the 16th of June, 1963. She was chosen for the honor from more than 400 applicants and 5 finalists. She orbited Earth 48 times during her famous 70.8 hour flight.
Honoring Ken Taylor for Helping Hostages to Escape 1981
Risking his own life, Ken Taylor - and his wife, Pat - helped six Americans to stay safe, then escape from Tehran, during the Iranian Hostage Crisis. President Reagan later awarded Taylor the Congressional Gold Medal on June 16, 1981.
17
Battle of Bunker Hill 1775
The first major battle of the American Revolution is commonly called the Battle of Bunker Hill. However ... the fighting actually took place at Breed's Hill. Learn more about it in this video clip.
Vlad the Impailer 1462
On the 17th of June, 1462, Vlad III tried to assassinate Mehmed II. Vlad was the real-life inspiration for Bram Stoker's ''Dracula.'' Who was the real Vlad? what made him so infamous?
18
Churchill: 'This Was Their Finest Hour' 1940
On the 18th of June, 1940, Winston Churchill delivered a famous speech to Parliament in which he declared that Britain would resist Hitler, even if the country had to do so alone.
Napoleon's Defeat at Waterloo 1815
The last great battle of the Napoleonic Wars was fought on a field in Belgium known as ''Waterloo.'' What happened during that battle? Why did it result in Napoleon's defeat?
19
Story of the Statue of Liberty 1885
On June 19, 1885, a French ship arrives in New York City to deliver ''Liberty Enlightening the World,'' a statue by Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi. What is the story behind the famous statue?
Congress Prohibits Slavery in the U.S. 1862
After hundreds of years of American slavery, the U.S. Congress prohibits it (thereby nullifying the Dred Scott case). Who were the slaves? What are their stories? Do we have any narratives? Step back in time to witness American chattel slavery.
20
Lizzie Borden - Acquitted of Murder 1893
On trial for her life, Lizzie Borden, accused of a brutally double homicide, was acquitted by an all-male jury during June of 1893. People still debate the wisdom of that verdict.
Wernher von Braun Goes to America 1945
After WWII, Germany's top rocket scientist, Wernher von Braun, surrenders to the U.S. Around 20 June 1945, America's Secretary of State approves transfer of von Braun and his team to the U.S. where they soon become key members of the U.S. space team.
Victoria Becomes Queen of Britain 1837
At the age of 18, Victoria became Queen of England. Who was she? What put her in the line of succession when her father was not the king? Why did her name give rise to an age?
21
Battle of Okinawa Ends 1945
The long, viciously fought battle for the Japanese-defended island of Okinawa finally ends on June 21, 1945. In addition to troop casualties, at least 42,000 civilians perished.
James Otis Blasts the British Parliament 1768
Already known for sharply criticizing Britain's treatment of American colonials, James Otis blasts Parliament, calling it a gathering of ''button-makers'' and ''horse jockey gamesters.'' The royal governor was most upset by this tirade.
Irish Rebels Lose the Battle of Vinegar Hill 1798
In June, Wexford was still a rebel stronghold during the Irish Rebellion of 1798. But when around 10,000 British reinforcements arrived, the Wexford rebels would also go down to defeat after the Battle of Vinegar Hill.
Civil Rights Workers - Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman - Go Missing 1964
During ''Freedom Summer,'' three civil rights workers go missing on June 21, 1964 after they are released from jail. Their bodies are found six weeks later, near an earthen dam, but it takes decades more before justice runs its course.
22
Galileo and the Inquisition 1633
Galileo questioned the Church's view of the world. He believed the Bible but did not view it as an astronomy textbook. On the 22nd of June, 1633, he was forced to recant his beliefs. Why?
Aftermath of Waterloo - Napoleon Abdicates 1815
After losing the Battle of Waterloo, in Belgium, Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates for a second time on June 22, 1815. Thereafter, he is sent into exile where lives the rest of his life on the remote island of St Helena, in the South Atlantic.
France Falls - The Armistice Train and Its Aftermath 1940
The railway car in which Germany surrendered to France, at the end of WWI, is housed in a French museum. Hitler orders his engineers to retrieve the train car—and deliver it to the exact spot where Germany had surrendered 21½ years before.
Berlin's Checkpoint Charlie Is Dismantled 1990
After being a divided city for decades, during the Cold War, Berlin was unified after the fall of the Berlin Wall. On June 22, 1990 ''Checkpoint Charlie,'' located in the American Sector of Berlin, was also dismantled.
23
Frederick Douglass Nominated for US President 1888
Beginning his life as a slave, then discovering that education (forbidden for American slaves) offered him a better life, Frederick Douglass escaped. On 23 June 1888, he became the first African-American nominated for U.S. President.
Modern Olympics Launched in Paris 1894
Baron Pierre de Coubertin launched the ''Modern Olympics'' when he suggested that such games could improve international cooperation. What is the history of the Olympic Games? When did they begin? Where were they held? What were the sports?
William Penn's Treaty with the Lenni-Lenape (Delaware) 1683
Although an actual document does not exist, legend tells us that on, or around, the 23rd of June, in 1683, William Penn negotiated a treaty with the Lenni-Lenape people. A wampum belt, reportedly associated with the event, survives.
24
Beginning of the Battle of the Somme 1916
British artillery bombardment begins the Battle of the Somme on June 24, 1916. It is a disaster-in-the-making. Before five months are over, 1 million troops (from all sides) will be killed or wounded. It remains a deadly example of war by attrition.
Battle of Bannockburn 1314
A key event in Scottish history, the Battle of Bannockburn pitted Robert the Bruce (with a small army of Scottish men) against Britain’s King Edward II. On 24 June 1314, a decisive Scottish victory led to the 1328 Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton.
25
Custer's Last Stand - Battle at Little Bighorn (Battle of the Greasy Grass) 1876
What happened at the Battle of the Little Bighorn - or, as Native Americans call it - the Battle of the Greasy Grass? Opposing sides, led by George Custer and Crazy Horse, resulted in the deaths of U.S. soldiers. What led to this conflict?
The Diary of a Young Girl (Anne Frank) Is Published 1947
Despite the efforts of people who helped them, Anne Frank and her family were betrayed. After WWII, Anne's father (Otto Frank) published her diary. Learn about Anne, see her hiding place and discover why she called her diary ''Kitty.''
France Surrenders in the Armistice Train 1940
When France surrendered to Hitler, in June of 1940, Hitler made specific demands. This historic footage captures what happened.
26
WWI - American Expeditionary Forces Arrive in France 1917
After a plea by the French Premier, Georges Clemenceau, U.S. troops (known as the American Expeditionary Force) arrive in France. By war's end, 2 million U.S. servicemen were in WWI France where, like the French, many died in trench warfare.
JFK - ''Ich Bin Ein Berliner'' 1963
On the 26th of June, 1963, President Kennedy visits the divided city of Berlin. Five months before his death, he famously declares: ''Ich bin ein Berliner.'' See his note, to help him with proper pronunciation, and hear excerpts of his moving speech.
27
Germany Uses Enigma Codes in France 1940
When France fell in June of 1940, Germany could use Enigma - a sophisticated coding system - to direct its bombers to British targets. This occurred via radio stations, set-up in the occupied French towns of Brest and Cherbourg, beginning 6/27/1940.
Truman Announces U.S. Involvement in Korean War 1950
Harry Truman told the American public he would answer the UN's call for troops to intervene in Korea. Later, he said it was the toughest decision he ever made in his life; for years he kept a letter from a bereaved father in his desk drawer.
28
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 1914
During a June 28, 1914 visit to Sarajevo, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated. The archduke's death was the precipitating cause of World War I.
Helen Keller Graduates from Radcliffe 1904
Not only was Helen Keller the first non-seeing, non-hearing person to enter college, she was the first to graduate. Achieving a Bachelor of Arts degree, Keller graduated from Radcliffe on June 28, 1904. Only one of her Profs understood sign language.
29
Death of St. Peter, c. 69 AD
Tradition has it that St. Peter died on the 29th of June in 69 AD. Tradition also has it that he was buried beneath St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City. Investigate what lies beneath the famous Italian cathedral.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
After a hotly contested Congressional debate, including an 83-day Senate filibuster, America passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act on the 29th of June, 1964. President Lyndon Baines Johnson then gave a televised addressed about it.
30
"Gone with the Wind" Published 1936
Meet Margaret Mitchell, author of one of the world's best-selling books, ''Gone with the Wind.'' Learn how the story came about, how she selected the title of her book and why she changed the name of her lead character from ''Pansy'' to ''Scarlett.''
Supreme Court Decision on Pentagon Papers 1971
In a 6-3 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court allows news articles about the ''Pentagon Papers,'' a series of leaked federal-government documents about the Vietnam War. Have a look at some of the most-damaging documents and learn about their impact.
Albert Einstein and His Theory of Special Relativity 1905
On the 30th of June, 1905, a young Albert Einstein submitted a paper entitled ''On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies.'' This video helps to explain his shocking concepts.
Assassination of President Garfield 1882
Charles Guiteau was a deranged individual when he shot President Garfield. On the 30th of June, 1882, he was hanged for his actions.

Jun 1: Anne Boleyn - 2nd Wife of Henry VIII 1533

Jun 1: Helen Keller Dies 1968

Jun 1: Benedict Arnold 1779

Jun 1: Mary Dyer Hangs at Boston Common 1660

Jun 2: P.T. Barnum Circus - A Traveling Attraction Begins 1835

Jun 2: Quartering Act Imposed on Colonies 1774

Jun 3: Catherine of Aragon - 1st Wife of Henry VIII 1509

Jun 3: Ed White - First American to Walk in Space 1965

Jun 4: Churchill: ''We Shall NEVER Surrender!'' 1940

Jun 4: Bobby Kennedy's Last Speech 1968

Jun 4: Miracle at Dunkirk - Operation Dynamo 1940

Jun 5: Gliders and the Capture of Pegasus Bridge 1944

Jun 5: Uncle Tom's Cabin 1851

Jun 5: Funeral Train of Bobby Kennedy 1968

Jun 5: Assassination of Bobby Kennedy 1968

Jun 5: Planning for D-Day 1944

Jun 6: D-Day and the Normandy Invasion 1944

Jun 6: Bobby Kennedy - 'Ripple of Hope' Speech 1966

Jun 6: D-Day - The Normandy Invasion 1944

Jun 6: A Distant Shore - African-Americans and D-Day 1944

Jun 6: D-Day - From the German Perspective 1944

Jun 7: Carry Nation Vandalizes a Kansas Saloon 1900

Jun 7: Pirates of the Caribbean and a Devastating Quake 1692

Jun 8: Vikings Invade Britain 793

Jun 8: Homer Plessy and Segregated Rail Travel 1892

Jun 9: Norway Surrenders during World War II 1940

Jun 9: Secretariat Wins the Triple Crown 1973

Jun 10: First Victim of Salem Witch Trials Hanged 1692

Jun 10: Death of Alexander the Great 323 BC

Jun 11: The Fall of Troy, c. 1184 BC

Jun 11: Catherine of Aragon Marries Henry VIII 1502

Jun 12: Medgar Evers - Assassinated in Jackson, MS 1963

Jun 12: Mr. Gorbachev: Tear Down This Wall! 1987

Jun 13: Cinderella Man Defeats Max Baer 1935

Jun 13: Lewis & Clark - The Great Falls 1805

Jun 14: Auschwitz - Opening of the Concentration Camp 1940

Jun 14: Falkland Islands - End of an Ownership War 1982

Jun 15: King John and the Magna Carta 1215

Jun 15: Mt. Pinatubo and Its Massive Eruption 1991

Jun 16: First Woman in Space - Valentina Tereshkova 1963

Jun 16: Honoring Ken Taylor for Helping Hostages to Escape 1981

Jun 17: Battle of Bunker Hill 1775

Jun 17: Vlad the Impailer 1462

Jun 18: Churchill: 'This Was Their Finest Hour' 1940

Jun 18: Napoleon's Defeat at Waterloo 1815

Jun 19: Story of the Statue of Liberty 1885

Jun 19: Congress Prohibits Slavery in the U.S. 1862

Jun 20: Lizzie Borden - Acquitted of Murder 1893

Jun 20: Wernher von Braun Goes to America 1945

Jun 20: Victoria Becomes Queen of Britain 1837

Jun 21: Battle of Okinawa Ends 1945

Jun 21: James Otis Blasts the British Parliament 1768

Jun 21: Irish Rebels Lose the Battle of Vinegar Hill 1798

Jun 21: Civil Rights Workers - Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman - Go Missing 1964

Jun 22: Galileo and the Inquisition 1633

Jun 22: Aftermath of Waterloo - Napoleon Abdicates 1815

Jun 22: France Falls - The Armistice Train and Its Aftermath 1940

Jun 22: Berlin's Checkpoint Charlie Is Dismantled 1990

Jun 23: Frederick Douglass Nominated for US President 1888

Jun 23: Modern Olympics Launched in Paris 1894

Jun 23: William Penn's Treaty with the Lenni-Lenape (Delaware) 1683

Jun 24: Beginning of the Battle of the Somme 1916

Jun 24: Battle of Bannockburn 1314

Jun 25: Custer's Last Stand - Battle at Little Bighorn (Battle of the Greasy Grass) 1876

Jun 25: The Diary of a Young Girl (Anne Frank) Is Published 1947

Jun 25: France Surrenders in the Armistice Train 1940

Jun 26: WWI - American Expeditionary Forces Arrive in France 1917

Jun 26: JFK - ''Ich Bin Ein Berliner'' 1963

Jun 27: Germany Uses Enigma Codes in France 1940

Jun 27: Truman Announces U.S. Involvement in Korean War 1950

Jun 28: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 1914

Jun 28: Helen Keller Graduates from Radcliffe 1904

Jun 29: Death of St. Peter, c. 69 AD

Jun 29: Civil Rights Act of 1964

Jun 30: "Gone with the Wind" Published 1936

Jun 30: Supreme Court Decision on Pentagon Papers 1971

Jun 30: Albert Einstein and His Theory of Special Relativity 1905

Jun 30: Assassination of President Garfield 1882

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