Stories of the Month

October 2017

1
Judgment at Nuremberg - The Verdict
Judgment at Nuremberg, a film about the Nuremberg war-crime trials, reenacts delivery of the verdict in the ''Justice Trial.''
Henry Ford Introduces the Model T 1908
Henry Ford, the auto maker who pioneered the assembly line in 1919, introduces a new car, known as the Model T, on October 1, 1908. Ford made more than 15 million of these cars before the last Model T was released. Every one was black.
Nazi Officials Sentenced to Death 1946
On the 1st of October, 1946, eleven high-ranking Nazis were sentenced to hang for their various crimes. This clip portrays the actual moment when those sentences were passed.
2
Ivan the Terrible Conquers Kazan 1552
In this clip, see the young Tsar lead his new army to Kazan. With the help of his general, and the use of Dutch gunpowder, Ivan defeated Kazan. History records that Ivan showed no mercy.
Birth of Mahatma Gandhi 1869
Mahatma Gandhi was born on the 2nd of October, 1869. Learn more about him, especially during his early life and his years in South Africa, in this video clip.
Destruction of Warsaw 1939
In 1944, people in Warsaw staged an uprising against the Nazi occupation of Poland. By the 2nd of October, however, the Nazis had totally crushed the rebellion.
Thurgood Marshall Becomes U.S. Supreme Court Justice 1967
On the 2nd of October, 1967, Thurgood Marshall became an Associate Justice of America's Supreme Court. This clip features highlights of his life before he served on the high court.
Gandhi's Speech on Non-Violent Resistance
Gandhi opposed racially motivated laws. This video clip dramatizes one of his most famous speeches advocating non-violent resistance.
3
Was Edgar Allan Poe the Victim of Cooping? 1849
Poe relatives and scholars think he was a victim of cooping, an illegal election-day tactic where kidnapped individuals were plied with liquor, dressed in clothes not their own, then sent to vote—again and again and again—for a particular candidate.
Black Hawk Down 1993
During the Battle of Mogadishu, in October of 1993, heavy fighting caused two Black Hawk helicopters to crash. In this video, people involved in the incident tell us what they experienced.
Edgar Allan Poe Seen in Public for the Last Time 1849
Outside Gunner's Hall, used as a Baltimore voting place in 1849, a disheveled man says he is the famous poet, Edgar Allan Poe. He'd been missing for a few days. What had happened to him? The answer, to that question, remains a mystery.
4
Sputnik I - World's First Satellite 1957
The Soviet Union shocked the world when they launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to circle the Earth. Learn about its background, development and launch on October 4, 1957.
A T.Rex Named Sue 1997
October 4, 1997, representatives from Chicago's Field Museum placed the winning bid for a one-of-a-kind item. Learn about the unique purchase!
Sputnik and the Space Race 1957
The Soviet Union shocked the world when it launched its first satellite, ''Sputnik'', on October 4, 1957. Learn more about what happened and U.S. reaction.
World Space Week October 4 - 10
Exploring New Worlds in Space, during ''World Space Week,'' learn how orbiting telescopes - like Hubble - work, see videos, meet the Mars Rovers and catch-up with Galileo, whose risk-taking actions helped to make star-gazing possible.
U.S. Reaction to Sputnik 1957
The Right Stuff, a film about NASA's early programs, uses historical information and imagined recreations to depict the U.S. government's response to Sputnik.
5
Seamus Heaney Nobel Prize in Literature 1995
Seamus Heaney won the Nobel Prize in Literature on the 5th of October, 1995. Listen to the Nobel Laureate as he reads one of his most-loved, short poems. Also use study-guide questions to think about the meaning of this famous work.
Women's March to Versailles 1789
In 1789, bread was an important part of a French person's diet. Because of an economic crisis in France, however, French mothers had a difficult time buying bread for their children.
6
Ben Franklin Arrives in Philadelphia, Age 17 1723
A teenager arriving in Philadelphia, known as Benjamin Franklin, would go on to become an inventor, a printer, a statesman, a writer and a believer that lightning and electricity are related. During his lifetime, he was the most-famous American.
JFK Advises Americans to Build Bomb Shelters 1961
During ''The Fifties'' American children were taught to ''duck and cover'' in the event of a nuclear attack. By 1961, JFK was urging Americans to build home bomb shelters and builders offered them as part of new home construction projects.
First 'Talkie' Motion Picture 1927
The era of ''talking motion pictures'' began on the 6th of October, 1927, when ''The Jazz Singer'' opened. The film actually has very little audible dialogue, so listen carefully!!
7
Who Were the Sonderkommandos? 1944
People who attempted the Auschwitz Uprising of October, 1944, were called ''Sonderkommandos.'' Who were they? Why did they do what they did at Auschwitz-Birkenau?
Uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau 1944
On the 7th of October, 1944, a group of people attempted an uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Their efforts are recreated in this clip from The Grey Zone.
8
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich 1970
Alexander Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature on the 8th of October, 1970. One of his autobiographical novels is closely followed in this film from 1970.
The Great Fire of 1871
From the very beginning, Catherine O'Leary and Daisy, her cow, were blamed for starting Chicago's Great Fire of 1871. Did they really do it? Learn more about this interesting case!
Deadliest American Fire - Peshtigo Burns 1871
At the same time as Chicago burned - during the Great Fire of 1871 - Peshtigo, Wisconsin was also decimated by a raging inferno. This clip shows what happened on October 8-9, 1871.
9
China in the Korean War 1950
Crossing the 38th parallel, on October, 9 1950, UN forces attacked as they moved toward the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. In response, China joined the fray. What caused this war?
Last Flight of the SR-71 'Blackbird' 1999
The world's fastest airplane, the SR-71 - also known as the ''Blackbird'' - flew its last flight on October 9, 1999. Learn about this amazing plane which left shock diamonds in its wake.
10
Margaret Thatcher Declares ''The Lady's not for Turning'' 1980
Initial changes implemented by Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government cause massive unemployment in Britain. Urged to take a U-Turn, she declares: ''You turn if you want to. The Lady's not for turning.''
Giuseppe Verdi and His Incredibly Beautiful Music 1813
Giuseppe Verdi, still popular in today's world, was born on October 10, 1813 in a small Northern Italian village. Film makers use his music and one of his most-beautiful songs was performed at Princess Diana's funeral.
11
Peter the Great - Tsar of Russia 1689
Peter the Great became the Tsar of Russia on October 11, 1689. The man who built St. Petersburg also accomplished many other feats. Who was he?
President Roosevelt Learns about Einstein's Letter 1939
FDR first learns about Albert Einstein's world-changing letter to the President on the 11th of October, 1939. It takes little time for the President to grasp the meaning of the letter. He orders action and the ''Manhattan Project'' soon follows.
12
Columbus and the Columbian Exchange 1492
Thinking he has arrived in ''The East,'' Columbus actually arrives in ''The West'' - The Bahamas, to be exact. One of the biggest results of his explorations is known as ''The Columbian Exchange,'' and we still experience its impact.
Nikita Khrushchev and the UN Shoe-Banging Incident 1960
Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev disrupts a U.N. General Assembly session by pounding a shoe on his desk. The impetus was to protest a Philippine assertion that the USSR was conducting a colonial policy in Eastern Europe.
Assassination Attempt in Brighton on Margaret Thatcher 1984
An assassin's attempt to kill Margaret Thatcher, and bring down the UK government, was the first-such attempt since the ''Gunpowder Plot'' of November 5, 1605. Thatcher was spared, since the bomb was planted in the wrong place, but others died.
13
Solzhenitsyn - Exiled 1974
Although Solzhenitsyn's novel about Ivan Denisovich was welcomed in 1970, by 1974- Solzhenitsyn was arrested and deported. In this clip, he describes what happened.
Laborers in the Gulag - Historical Footage
This video clip, compiled from various sources, features historical footage of Soviet forced laborers at work.
Nero - Emperor of Rome 54 AD
Nero became Rome's Emperor on the 13th of October, 54 AD. Who was this man whom so many reviled during his reign and at the time of his death, fourteen years later?
14
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
October 14, 1962 Major Richard Heyser flew his U-2 on a spy mission over the Caribbean island of Cuba. What he found brought the world as close as it's ever come to the brink of nuclear war.
The Bayeux Tapestry 1066
It is said that the 14th of October, 1066, changed the course of British history. In this story, you will see the Bayeux Tapestry, and learn about the famous battle.
Battle of Hastings - 1066
Thousands of soldiers died in the longest battle of medieval history, fought near Hastings, in October 1066. Why did it take place and what caused Harold II, to lose his throne?
15
The Mystery of ''Jack the Ripper'' Begins 1888
Postmarked the 15th of October 1888, a gruesome letter from someone who came to be known as ''Jack the Ripper'' arrives. Addressed to George Lusk, the letter involves a still-unsolved mystery.
Mandela and de Klerk Win Nobel Peace Prize 1993
On the 15th of October, 1993, the world learned that Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were jointly receiving the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts in ending apartheid in South Africa.
16
Marie Antoinette - Execution of a Queen Consort 1793
Nine months after her husband (King Louis XVI) was executed, Marie Antoinette was publicly beheaded following a trial in which false evidence was presented against her.
The Death of Marie Antoinette 1793
A marriage intended to improve relations between France and its former enemies resulted in disaster for princess Marie Antoinette. She was guillotined, in Paris, on October 16, 1793.
John Brown - Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859
John Brown was an American abolitionist who despised slavery. On the 16th of October, 1859, he led a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry. Who was he?
17
California Earthquake - Loma Prieta 6.9 Magnitude 1989
A powerful 6.9 magnitude earthquake, known as the Loma Prieta, rocks San Francisco on October 17, 1989. It kills nine people, injures hundreds more, causes massive property damage and occurs while thousands of people are watching the World Series.
Cornwallis Discusses an End to the Revolutionary War 1781
Cornwallis didn’t realize, until too late, that Washington and Rochambeau were marching toward him, to attack his position. The Allied forces included significant numbers of soldiers: 5700 Continentals, 3100 militia and 7000 French troops.
18
Cuban Missile Crisis - As it Happened 1962
People involved with the Cuban missile crisis of October, 1962, tell the story from various points of view - American, Soviet and Cuban.
William Penn and his Model Laws 1682
William Penn - an Englishman who landed on the river bank of what is now Chester, Pennsylvania in late October, 1682 - knew what it was like to be charged with an unfair law.
19
Cornwallis - Defeat at Yorktown 1781
With the help of the French, and a stunning convergence of favorable events, the Americans defeated Cornwallis at Yorktown in October of 1781.
France Helps America Win a War
American revolutionary forces battled the British Army for 6 years. Many historians believe a colonial victory would not have happened without France's help.
20
The 'Color Line' and the World Series 1924
On the 20th of October, 1924, baseball's first ''Colored World Series'' was held in Kansas City, Missouri. Why did ''the boys of summer'' have separate championships?
General MacArthur Returns to The Philippines 1944
When FDR ordered MacArthur to leave The Philippines, in early 1942, the General promised to return. It took him more than two years to make good on that promise, but he arrived - with a huge armada of navy ships - on October 20, 1944.
21
Victory at Trafalgar 1805
When the great naval battle began - on the 21st of October, 1805 - Admiral Horatio Nelson's unconventional tactics led to Britain's victory over Napolean's troops.
Trafalgar: Using Art to Better Understand History 1805
As the Battle at Trafalgar begins, Admiral Nelson flies signal flags from his ship: ''England expects that every man will do his duty.'' See those flags and a composite painting to better understand Britain's victory over Napoleon on October 21, 1805
A Pell-Mell Battle Plan Changes the World of Naval Warfare 1805
Horatio Nelson decides that traditional naval battles are too costly. To save his men and his ships, he invents a new ''pell mell'' battle plan, surprising Napoleon's men at Trafalgar (and losing not a single vessel in the process).
22
Colored Photos of the Great Depression
The federal government commissioned some of America's leading photographers to document the Great Depression. A representative sampling is included here.
Cuban Missile Crisis - JFK Addresses Americans 1962
For days, the Kennedy Administration investigates the status of Soviet missiles in Cuba. On October 22, 1962, JFK requests broadcast time. No one, including the Soviets, know what is on the President's mind. Then he gives a world-changing address.
23
Suicide-Bomber Attack in Beirut 1983
A suicide bomber detonated the equivalent of 12,000 pounds of TNT in Beirut, Lebanon on 23 Oct 1983. Decimating a building housing U.S. Marines, the bomb killed 241 Americans. A near-simultaneous attack killed 58 French paratroopers.
Showdown at the United Nations 1962
In October of 1962, America had evidence that the Soviets were building missile sites in Cuba. This historical footage depicts what occurred during the initial confrontation, between the US and the USSR, at the UN during the ''Cuban Missile Crisis.''
24
Chartres Cathedral Dedicated 1260
With its stunning stained-glass windows, the Cathedral at Chartres was an engineering marvel in its day and is still spectacular to behold. It was dedicated on 24 Oct 1260. See pictures of its windows and a video about this stunning achievement.
Death of Rosa Parks at Age 92 2005
Rosa Parks challenges the ''Jim Crow'' laws of Alabama when she refuses to give-up her bus seat for a white man. She lives a long life and dies on October 24, 2005 at the age of 92. She lies in state at the Capitol Building's Rotunda - a rare honor.
25
US-USSR Confrontation at the UN - A Step Away from Nuclear War 1962
On the 25th of October, 1962, Adlai Stevenson confronts Valerian Zorin whether the USSR is installing ballistic missiles in Cuba. Though Zorin evades answering, Stevenson says he is prepared to wait ''until hell freezes over'' for Zorin to respond.
Battle of Agincourt - 1415
On the 25th of October, 1415 - during the Hundred Years' War, between England and France - Henry V of Britain led his forces to victory at the Battle of Agincourt.
Pablo Picasso's Birthday 1881
Meet the genius, Pablo Picasso, who was born in Malaga, Spain on October 25, 1881. Have a look at some of his most-famous paintings.
26
Shoot-Out at the O.K. Corral 1881
No longer Deputy Marshall of Dodge City, Wyatt Earp still recognized a crime-in-the-making. At least ... that's what he thought. In October of 1881. Learn more about what happened.
Desegregation Riots at Ole Miss 1962
This historical newsreel footage depicts the events, in late September/early October, 1962. As fiercely opposing sides gathered in Oxford, Mississippi.
27
Theodore Roosevelt, America's 26th President 1858
Theodore Roosevelt, America's 26th President, is born on October 27, 1858. He takes office, in a world-changing event, after President McKinley is assassinated. He is famously portrayed by Robin Williams in ''Night at the Museum'' movies.
Dylan Thomas - Meet the Famous Poet Born in 1914
One of the most-famous poets writing in English, Dylan Thomas is born in Swansea, Wales on October 27, 1914. Meet Dylan Thomas who lived hard, wrote beautifully and died young (at 39) while leaving behind some of the most-loved poems in English.
28
Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin Changes the World 1793
Eli Whitney may not realize, when he applies for his patent, that his invention will change the world of slavery in America. Discover why Whitney comes-up with this idea and how the gin causes slavery, which had been a dying institution, to expand.
The Great Crash of 1929
On October 28-29, 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed, ushering in ''The Great Depression.' A domino effect caused businesses to close and people to lose their jobs and homes.
29
Stock Market Crash of 1929
On the 29th of October, 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed. The Great Depression would follow thereafter. What caused the crash? Could it have been prevented?
Leon Czolgosz, Assassin of President McKinley, Dies in the Electric Chair 1901
A public outcry for swift justice is intense after Leon Czolgosz shoots President McKinley. ''He was intensely pale and his chin quivered as he tried to look brave,'' wrote one reporter as Leon was led to the electric chair.
Walter Raleigh Loses His Head 1618
Walter Raleigh helps uncover the Babington Plot and becomes a favorite of Elizabeth I; he attempts to form a settlement in the New World. After the Queen's death, Raleigh is accused of treason and loses his head on the 29th of October, 1618.
30
War of the Worlds - The Night America Panicked 1938
Welles' production of War of the Worlds was such a compelling radio program on Sunday evening - the 30th of October, 1938 - that many people throughout the U.S. panicked.
War of the Worlds - The Radio Broadcast 1938
Orson Welles decided to pull a prank on America. On the 30th of October, 1938, the night before Halloween, people throughout the country fell for his trick.
31
Mount Rushmore - Carvings by Gutzon Borglum 1941
After 14 years of work Gutzon Borglum's dream finally came true on the 31st of October, 1941. Where did the idea for these carvings originate? Was Borglum able to finish the project?
Protestant Reformation - Luther's 95 Theses 1517
On the 31st of October, 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 points of contention on a door of the Castle Church at Wittenberg. Who was Luther, and, how did his actions change the world?

Oct 1: Judgment at Nuremberg - The Verdict

Oct 1: Henry Ford Introduces the Model T 1908

Oct 1: Nazi Officials Sentenced to Death 1946

Oct 2: Ivan the Terrible Conquers Kazan 1552

Oct 2: Birth of Mahatma Gandhi 1869

Oct 2: Destruction of Warsaw 1939

Oct 2: Thurgood Marshall Becomes U.S. Supreme Court Justice 1967

Oct 2: Gandhi's Speech on Non-Violent Resistance

Oct 3: Was Edgar Allan Poe the Victim of Cooping? 1849

Oct 3: Black Hawk Down 1993

Oct 3: Edgar Allan Poe Seen in Public for the Last Time 1849

Oct 4: Sputnik I - World's First Satellite 1957

Oct 4: A T.Rex Named Sue 1997

Oct 4: Sputnik and the Space Race 1957

Oct 4: World Space Week October 4 - 10

Oct 4: U.S. Reaction to Sputnik 1957

Oct 5: Seamus Heaney Nobel Prize in Literature 1995

Oct 5: Women's March to Versailles 1789

Oct 6: Ben Franklin Arrives in Philadelphia, Age 17 1723

Oct 6: JFK Advises Americans to Build Bomb Shelters 1961

Oct 6: First 'Talkie' Motion Picture 1927

Oct 7: Who Were the Sonderkommandos? 1944

Oct 7: Uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau 1944

Oct 8: One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich 1970

Oct 8: The Great Fire of 1871

Oct 8: Deadliest American Fire - Peshtigo Burns 1871

Oct 9: China in the Korean War 1950

Oct 9: Last Flight of the SR-71 'Blackbird' 1999

Oct 10: Margaret Thatcher Declares ''The Lady's not for Turning'' 1980

Oct 10: Giuseppe Verdi and His Incredibly Beautiful Music 1813

Oct 11: Peter the Great - Tsar of Russia 1689

Oct 11: President Roosevelt Learns about Einstein's Letter 1939

Oct 12: Columbus and the Columbian Exchange 1492

Oct 12: Nikita Khrushchev and the UN Shoe-Banging Incident 1960

Oct 12: Assassination Attempt in Brighton on Margaret Thatcher 1984

Oct 13: Solzhenitsyn - Exiled 1974

Oct 13: Laborers in the Gulag - Historical Footage

Oct 13: Nero - Emperor of Rome 54 AD

Oct 14: Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

Oct 14: The Bayeux Tapestry 1066

Oct 14: Battle of Hastings - 1066

Oct 15: The Mystery of ''Jack the Ripper'' Begins 1888

Oct 15: Mandela and de Klerk Win Nobel Peace Prize 1993

Oct 16: Marie Antoinette - Execution of a Queen Consort 1793

Oct 16: The Death of Marie Antoinette 1793

Oct 16: John Brown - Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859

Oct 17: California Earthquake - Loma Prieta 6.9 Magnitude 1989

Oct 17: Cornwallis Discusses an End to the Revolutionary War 1781

Oct 18: Cuban Missile Crisis - As it Happened 1962

Oct 18: William Penn and his Model Laws 1682

Oct 19: Cornwallis - Defeat at Yorktown 1781

Oct 19: France Helps America Win a War

Oct 20: The 'Color Line' and the World Series 1924

Oct 20: General MacArthur Returns to The Philippines 1944

Oct 21: Victory at Trafalgar 1805

Oct 21: Trafalgar: Using Art to Better Understand History 1805

Oct 21: A Pell-Mell Battle Plan Changes the World of Naval Warfare 1805

Oct 22: Colored Photos of the Great Depression

Oct 22: Cuban Missile Crisis - JFK Addresses Americans 1962

Oct 23: Suicide-Bomber Attack in Beirut 1983

Oct 23: Showdown at the United Nations 1962

Oct 24: Chartres Cathedral Dedicated 1260

Oct 24: Death of Rosa Parks at Age 92 2005

Oct 25: US-USSR Confrontation at the UN - A Step Away from Nuclear War 1962

Oct 25: Battle of Agincourt - 1415

Oct 25: Pablo Picasso's Birthday 1881

Oct 26: Shoot-Out at the O.K. Corral 1881

Oct 26: Desegregation Riots at Ole Miss 1962

Oct 27: Theodore Roosevelt, America's 26th President 1858

Oct 27: Dylan Thomas - Meet the Famous Poet Born in 1914

Oct 28: Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin Changes the World 1793

Oct 28: The Great Crash of 1929

Oct 29: Stock Market Crash of 1929

Oct 29: Leon Czolgosz, Assassin of President McKinley, Dies in the Electric Chair 1901

Oct 29: Walter Raleigh Loses His Head 1618

Oct 30: War of the Worlds - The Night America Panicked 1938

Oct 30: War of the Worlds - The Radio Broadcast 1938

Oct 31: Mount Rushmore - Carvings by Gutzon Borglum 1941

Oct 31: Protestant Reformation - Luther's 95 Theses 1517

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